An Evolutionary Algorithm for the Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Battery Degradation and Capacitated Charging Stations
As CO2 emission regulations increase, fleet owners increasingly consider the adoption of Electric Vehicle (EV) fleets in their business. The conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) aims to find a set of routes to reduce operational costs. However, route planning of EVs poses different challenges than that of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEV). The Electric Vehicle Routing Problem (E-VRP) must take into consideration EV limitations such as short driving range, high charging time, poor charging infrastructure, and battery degradation. In this work, the E-VRP is formulated as a Prognostic Decision-Making problem. It considers customer time windows, partial midtour recharging operations, non-linear charging functions, and limited Charge Station (CS) capacities. Besides, battery State of Health (SOH) policies are included in the E-VRP to prevent early degradation of EV batteries. An optimization problem is formulated with the above considerations, when each EV has a set of costumers assigned, which is solved by a Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. This GA has been suitably designed to decide the order of customers to visit, when and how much to recharge, and when to begin the operation. A simulation study is conducted to test GA performance with fleets and networks of different sizes. Results show that E-VRP effectively enables operation of the fleet, satisfying all operational constraints.
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Electric Vehicle Routing Problem, Genetic Algorithm, State of Charge Prognosis, Combinatorial Optimization
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