A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Based Approach for the State-of-Charge Estimation of an Electric Vehicle When Driven Under Real Conditions

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Published Nov 24, 2021
Aramis Perez
Francisco Jaramillo Cesar Baeza Martin Valderrama Vanessa Quintero Marcos Orchard

Abstract

Recent developments in lithium-ion (Li-ion) storage technology have enabled a revolution in the automotive industry. Fully electric vehicles (EVs) operate under the most diverse combination of driving and environmental conditions affecting the autonomy range. In other words, an equal State-of- Charge (SOC) on two same model EV does not mean the same traveling distance since the conditions such as the Stateof- Health (SOH) of the battery, type of driver and even the type of route will influence the EV performance. Typically, SOC estimation algorithms are proposed and validated under controlled laboratory conditions. However, when real conditions are present, it is necessary to incorporate new tools capable of handling the diverse variability present in all the conditions. For instance, the elevation profile of the route influences the current that the battery pack delivers or regenerates, and the performance on the same route can be affected by the SOH. One of the main concerns for EV owners is that once a battery pack is installed, it becomes almost impossible to perform laboratory tests under controlled conditions.This paper proposes a novel Particle-Swarm-Optimization-based (PSO) method to characterize the battery pack of an EV when driven under real traffic conditions. The data was obtained by a real-driving experiment, which consists on driving the EV in a complete discharge cycle on a highway. During this experiment, the initial SOC was 100%, and the EV was driven through a highway where the driving conditions were almost uniform making it possible to characterize the SOC curve. The obtained model is then validated when the EV was driven in different types of routes. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can estimate the SOC satisfactorily. In this regard, this type of real-driving experiment can be performed by any driver, and by combining the particular results with the proposed approach, the users can personalize the SOC estimation model to their vehicles, and even more, create their own knowledge base of their EV performance through time. Therefore, the real-driving experiment can be replicated when needed to update the model parameters, thus allowing a better understanding of the actual SOH of the battery pack. Furthermore, by combining the obtained model with the elevation profile of a given route, the user can assess where to stop in case that a recharge is necessary.

How to Cite

Perez, A., Jaramillo, F., Baeza, C., Valderrama, M., Quintero, V., & Orchard, M. (2021). A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Based Approach for the State-of-Charge Estimation of an Electric Vehicle When Driven Under Real Conditions. Annual Conference of the PHM Society, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.36001/phmconf.2021.v13i1.3013
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Keywords

Electric vehicle, Li-ion battery, State of Charge Estimation

Section
Technical Papers

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