The development of new modes of transportation such as electric vertical takeoff and landing aircraft and the use of drones for package and medical delivery have increased the demand for reliable and powerful electric batteries. Therefore, accurately predicting the degradation of a battery’s state-ofhealth (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is a crucial albeit still challenging task. There is a need for models that can accurately predict the SOH and SOC while taking into account the specific characteristics of a battery cell and its usage profile. While traditional physics-based and data-driven approaches are used to monitor the SOH and SOC, they both have limitations related to computational costs or that require engineers to continually update their prediction models as new battery cells are developed and put into use in battery-powered vehicle
Battery capacity degradation can vary from battery to battery and can also be influenced by changes in load due to internal thermal stress. While sophisticated electrochemistry-based models can provide precise predictions of the SOC during a
discharge cycle when parameters are well-tuned, using highfidelity models for prognostics purposes can be computationally expensive. Those models also require tuning to specific battery types and at times to specific specimens, thus hindering generalization. In contrast, purely data-driven approaches can learn the relationship between input and output for SOC prediction based on load input, but they require a large and diverse training dataset and lack any physical or electrochemical understanding, making far-ahead predictions challenging if test loading conditions fall outside the training distribution. To address some of the drawbacks of the aforementioned modeling approaches, in this paper, we enhance a hybrid physics-informed machine learning version of a battery SOC model we presented in previous work to predict voltage drop
during discharge. The enhanced model captures the effect of wide variation of load levels, in the form of input current,
which causes large thermal stress cycles. The cell temperature build-up during a discharge cycle is used to identify temperature-sensitive model parameters. Additionally, we enhance an existing aging model built upon cumulative energy drawn by introducing the effect of the load level. We then map cumulative energy and load level to battery capacity with a Gaussian process model. To validate our approach we use a battery aging dataset collected on a self-developed testbed, where we used a wide current level range to age battery packs in accelerated fashion. Prediction results show that our model can be successfully calibrated and generalizes across all applied load levels.
How to Cite
Li-Ion battery prognosis, Physics-informed machine learning
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