In this paper, effects preceding a latch-up fault in insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are studied as they manifest within an electric motor drive system. Primary failure modes associated with IGBT latch-up faults are reviewed. Precursors to latch-up, primarily an increase in turn-off time and junction temperature, are examined for the IGBT. In addition, the relationship between junction temperature and turn-off time is explained by examining the semiconductor properties of an IGBT. To evaluate the effects preceding latch-up, seeded fault testing is conducted using aged transistors induced with a fault located in the die-attach solder layer. Since junction temperature cannot be directly measured, the transistor turn-off time is used as a measured system parameter to correlate between healthy and fault conditions. The experimental results provide statistically signiﬁcant evidence (within 99% conﬁdence) that an IGBT latchup event, caused by elevated junction temperatures, can be detected by monitoring the transistor turn-off time insitu.
How to Cite
diagnosis, IGBT, latch-up
Araujo Ribeiro, R. L. de, Jacobina, C. B., Silva, E. R. C. da, & Lima, A. M. N. (2004, April). Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Fed PWM Inverter AC Motor Drive Systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 51(2), 439-446.
Auerback, F., & Lenniger, A. (1997). Power-cyclingstability of IGBT-modules. In Conference Record of the 1997 IEEE Industry Applications Conference (Vol. 2, p. 1248-1252). New Orleans, LA, USA.
Baliga, B. J. (1996). Power Semiconductor Devices. PWS Publications.
Baliga, J. (1985). Temperature behavior of insulated gate transistor characteristics. Solid State Electronics, 28(3), 289-297.
Bolognani, S., Zordan, M., & Zigliotto, M. (2000, October). Experimental fault-tolerant control of pms drive. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 47(5), 1134-1141.
Chokhawala, R. S., Catt, J., & Kiraly, L. (1995, March/April). A Discussion on IGBT Short-Circuit Behavior and Fault Protection Schemes. IEEE Transactions on Industry applications, 31(2), 256-263.
Cova, P., & Fantini, F. (1998). On the effect of power cycling stress on IGBT modules. Microelectronics Reliability, 38(6-8), 1347-1352.
Debebe, K., Rajagopalan, V., & Sankaran, T. S. (1991).
Expert systems for fault diagnosis of VSI fed AC drives. In Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (p. 368-373).
Engström, O., & Alm, A. (1978, November-December).Thermodynamical analysis of optimal recombination centers in thyristors. Solid State Electronics, 21(11-12), 1571-1576.
Fu, J.-R., & Lipo, T. (1993, October 2-8). A strategy to isolate the switching device fault of a current regulated motor drive. In Conference Record of the IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 2, p. 1015-1020).
Ginart, A., Brown, D., Kalgren, P., & Roemer, M. (2007, September 17-20). On-line Ringing Characterization as PHM Technique for Power Drive and Electrical Machinery. In AUTOTESTCON. Baltimore, MD, USA.
Ginart, A., Roemer, M., Kalgren, P., & Goebel, K. (2008, Oct 6-9). Modeling and analysis of aging of IGBTs in power drives by ringing characterization. In International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management. Denver, CO, USA.
Ginart, A. E., Brown, D. W., Kalgren, P. W., & Roemer, M. J. (2009, July). Online Ringing Characterization as a Diagnostic Technique for IGBTs in Power Drives. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(7), 2290-2299. Hallen, A., Keskitalo, N., Masszi, F., & Nagl, V. (1996).
Lifetime in proton irradiated silicon. Journal of Applied Physics, 79(8), 3906.
He, J., Morris, W., Shaw, M., Mather, J., & 297., N. S. .(1998, 3). Reliability in large area die bonds and effects of thermal expansion mismatch and die size. Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, 21, 297.
Held, M., Jacob, P., Nicoletti, G., Scacco, P., & Poech, M.-H. (1999, October). Fast power cycling test for IGBT modules in traction applications. International Journal of Electronics, 86(10), 1193-1204.
Huang, T.-Y., Gong, J., & Chen, S.-H. (2002, March). Modeling the Turn-off Characteristics of Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 41(3A), 1288-1292. IGBT Characteristics [Computer software manual].
(n.d.). 233 Kansas St., El Segundo, California 90245. (Application Note AN-983) Industrial Level Qualiﬁcation Requirements for Discrete Product (Tech. Rep.). (2010, April). International Rectiﬁer Reliability Lab. (Available at http://www.irf.com/product-info/reliability/) IRG4BC30KD datasheet [Computer software manual]. (2000, April 4). 233 Kansas St., El Segundo, California 90245.
Janhs, T. M. (1980, May/June). Improved Reliability in Solid-State AC Drives by Means of Multiple Independent Phase-Drive Units. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 16(3), 321-331.
Kastha, D., & Bose, B. K. (1994, July/August). Investigation of fault modes of voltage-fed inverter system forinduction motor drive. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 30(4), 1028-1038.
Lambilly, H., & Keser, H. O. (1993). Failure analysis of power modules: a look at the packaging andreliability of large IGBTs. IEEE transactions on components, hybrids, and manufacturing technology, 16(4), 412-417.
Lidow, A., & Herman, T. (1981, February 9). High power MOSFET with low on-resistance and high breakdown voltage (US Patent Nos. 4,376,286). Malberti, P., Ciappa, M., & Cattomio, R. (1995).
A Power-Cycling-Induced Failure Mechanism of IGBT Multichip Modules. In International Symposium for testing and failure analysis (p. 163-170). American Technical Publishers, LTD.
Mendes, A. M. S., & Marques, A. J. (1999, May 9-12).Voltage source inverter fault diagnosis in variable speed AC drives, by the average current Park’s vector approach. In International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives (p. 704-706). Metrotra, V., He, J., Dadkhah, M. S., Rugg, K., & Shaw,
M. C. (1999, May 26-28). Wirebond reliability in IGBT-power modules: application of high resolution strain and temperature mapping. In 11th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (p. 113-116).
Olson, R., & Berg, M. (1979). Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue. IEEE transactions on components, hybrids, and manufacturing technology, 2(2), 257-262.
Patil, N., Celaya, J., Das, D., Goebel, K., & Pecht,M. (2009, June). Precursor Parameter Identiﬁcation for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Prognostics. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 58(2), 271-276.
Patil, N., Das, D., Goebel, K., & Pecht, M. (2008, Oct 6-9). Identiﬁcation of failure precursor parameters for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). In International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management (p. 1-5).
Denver, CO, USA. Pecht, A., Dasgupta, A., Evans, J., & Evans, J. (1994). Quality Conformance and Qualiﬁcation of Microelectronic Packaging and Interconnects. New York, NY, USA: Wiley.
Peuget, R., Courtine, S., & Rognon, J. P. (1998, November/December). Fault Detection and Isolation on a PWM inverter by knowledge-based modelling. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 34(6), 1318-1326.
Russel, J. P., Goodman, A. M., Goodman, L. A., & Neilson, J. M. (1983). The COMFET – A new high conductance MOS-gated device. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 4, 63. Sankaran, V. A., Chen, C., Avant, C. S., & Xu, X. (1997, October). Power cycling reliability of IGBT power modules Source. In Industrial Applications Soci-ety Annual Meeting (Vol. 2, p. 1222-1227). New Orleans, LA, USA.
Shammas, N. Y. A., Rodriguez, M. P., Plumpton, A. T., & Newcombe, D. (2002, August). Finite element modelling of thermal fatigue effects in IGBT modules. IEE Proceedings of Circuits, Devices and Systems, 148(2), 95-100.
Somos, L. (1993). Power semiconductors empirical diagrams expressing life as a function of temperature excursion. IEEE transactions on magnetics, 29(1), 517-522.
Wu, W., Held, M., Jacob, P., Scacco, P., & Birolini, A. (1995, May). Thermal Stress Related Packaging Failure in Power IGBT Modules. In International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices & ICs (p. 330-334). Yokohama, Japan.
Ye, H., Lin, M., & Basaran, C. (2002). Failure modes and FEM analysis of power electronic packaging. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 38(7), 601-612.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.