Domain Adaptation for Structural Fault Detection under Model Uncertainty
In the last decade, the interest in machine learning (ML) has grown significantly within the structural health monitoring (SHM) community. Traditional supervised ML approaches for detecting faults assume that the training and test data come from similar distributions. However, real-world applications, where an ML model is trained, for example, on numerical simulation data and tested on experimental data, are deemed to fail in detecting the damage. The deterioration in the prediction performance is mainly related to the fact that the numerical and experimental data are collected under different conditions and they do not share the same underlying features. This paper proposes a domain adaptation approach for ML-based damage detection and localization problems where the classifier has access to the labeled training (source) and unlabeled test (target) data, but the source and target domains are statistically different. The proposed domain adaptation method seeks to form a feature space that is capable of representing both source and target domains by implementing a domain-adversarial neural network. This neural network uses H-divergence criteria to minimize the discrepancy between the source and target domain in a latent feature space. To evaluate the performance, we present two case studies where we design a neural network model for classifying the health condition of a variety of systems. The effectiveness of the domain adaptation is shown by computing the classification accuracy of the unlabeled target data with and without domain adaptation. Furthermore, the performance gain of the domain adaptation over a well-known transfer knowledge approach called Transfer Component Analysis is also demonstrated. Overall, the results demonstrate that the domain adaption is a valid approach for damage detection applications where access to labeled experimental data is limited.
domain adaptation, structural health monitoring, numerical modeling, deep learning
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