The use of condition monitoring (CM) in wind energy machines continues to evolve as wind energy machines grow in size and move offshore. Early and smaller wind generation machines offered little financial incentives for condition monitoring, justifying only simple and inexpensive health monitoring technologies. Today, multi-megawatt wind machines are more complex, more difficult to physically reach, and generate more revenue than previous models. This paper reviews challenges and candidate technologies for next generation condition monitoring in Wind Energy.
Larger wind turbines typically employ Doubly-Fed induction generators with gearbox based drive trains or direct drive generators with multi pole rotors and fixed stators. Both configurations employ variable speed wind driven rotors, variable due to wind speed. Fixed rotor speed signal processing techniques no longer work in a variable speed environment. Synchronous sampling, order analysis, wavelet filters, Cepstrum and related frequency analysis of sensor waveforms are examples of advanced feature extraction tools now available for up-tower condition monitoring systems to address the variable speed nature of modern wind turbines. These signal processing tools operate to reduce and preprocess sensory data producing and extracting signal features. With extracted features, performance prediction and health diagnostics are then able to produce machine degradation rate and degradation levels.
This paper provides a tutorial of signal processing techniques for analysis of sensory information from variable speed rotary machines. The paper concludes with a discussion of prediction and diagnostics techniques which consume the analysis results of previously mentioned signal processing techniques.
How to Cite
data driven prognostics, signal processing, Wind Turbine, Cepstrum, Wavelet, Order Analysis, Time Synchronous Averaging
Nanxiong Zhang (2008). Advanced Signal Processing Algorithms and Architectures for Sound and Vibration; National Instruments NI-Week Conference; Presentation TS 1577; Austin, Texas, USA; August.
Shie Qian (2002). INTRODUCTION TO TIMEFREQUENCY AND WAVELET TRANSFORMS, Prentice-Hall.
National Instruments (2009). Sound and Vibration Measurement Suite 2009 Help Manual, June 2009, part number 372416C-01.
National Instruments (2009). National Instruments LabVIEW Advanced Signal Processing Toolkit Help Manual, June 2009, part number 372656A-01.
E. Bechhoefer and M. Kingsley (2009). A Review of Time Synchronous Averaging Algorithms. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society.
P. McFadden and M. Toozhy (2000). Application of Synchronous Averaging to Vibration Monitoring of Roller Element Bearings; Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 14(6), 891-906.
National Instruments (2010). Fatigue Analysis in LabVIEW, May 2010, Developer Zone Tutorial 10991, www.ni.com/zone.
Dr. Jay. Lee (2009) Advanced Prognostics for Smart Systems. Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) Introduction, pp. 6-8.
IMS Center (2009). IMS Teams Win 2009 PHM Data Challenge Competition, news release.
Intelligent Maintenance Systems (2007). Watchdog Agent TM Documentation, Center for Intelligent Maintenance Systems, May 9.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.