An electronic control unit (ECU) with a floating ground is not able to receive or transmit messages or participate in controller area network (CAN) communication. The absence of any ECU, either temporarily or permanently, negatively impacts vehicle functionalities. The offset ground, which by itself will not affect bus functionalities if the grounding resistance is small, however, may evolve into a floating ground or behave similarly if the resistance is large. In this work, the correlation among ground faults, either offset or floating, and CAN bus voltage or messages are analyzed based on the equivalent circuit models and the bus protocol. A voltage-based solution to detect ground faults is proposed. With the help of bus messages, both faults can be isolated at the ECU level. Considering the inherent system delay between the message fetching and voltage measurement, a normalized voltage-message correlation approach with the bus load estimation is developed as well. All proposed approaches are implemented to an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame.
CAN, Vehicle, Diagnostics
Baldwin, T., Renovich, F., Saunders, L. F., & Lubkeman, D. (2001). Fault Locating in Ungrounded and High-Resistance Grounded Systems. Transactions on Industry Applications, 37(4), 1152-1159.
CAN Specification . (1991). Stuttgart: Robert Bosch GmbH.
Du, X., Jiang, S., Nagose, A., Zhang, Y., & Wienckowski, N. (2016). Locating wire short fault for in-vehicle controller area network with resistance estimation approach. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Electronic and Electrical Systems, 93-99.
Farsi, M., Ratcliff, K., & Barbosa, M. (1999). An overview of controller area network. Computing & Control Engineering Journal, 113-120.
Fraissé, S. (2006). High speed CAN Transceivers Application Note. München, Germany: Infineon Technologies AG.
Gaona , C. A., Blázquez , F., & Frías , P. (2010). A Novel Rotor Ground-Fault-Detection Technique for Synchronous Machines With Static Excitation . IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 25(4), 965 - 973 .
Guerrero, J. M., Mahtani, K., Serrano-Jimenez, D., & Platero, C. A. (2021). Ground fault location method for DC power sources. IEEE 13th International Symposium on Diagnostics for Electrical Machines, Power Electronics and Drives (SDEMPED). Dallas, USA.
High-Speed CAN Transceiver - MCP2551. (2003). Microchip Technology Inc.
Hu, H., & Qin, G. (2011). Online fault diagnosis for controller area networks. International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), . Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
ISO. (2016). ISO 11898-2:2016 . Retrieved from http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=67244
Kelkar, S., & Kamal, R. (2014). Adaptive fault diagnosis algorithm for controller area network. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 61(10), 5527-5537.
Li, Y., Liu, K., & Meng, X. (2016). A single-line-to-ground fault diagnosis method in small-current--grounding system based on fuzzy-integral decision fusion technique. China International Conference on Electricity Distribution. Xi'an.
Martin, C. M., Guerrero, J. M., Mourelo, P. G., & Platero, C. A. (2021). Ground fault location in poles of synchronous machines through frequency response analysis. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 58(1), 113-122.
Muth, M. (2005, December 1). USA Patent No. US20050268166 A1.
Ray, D. K., Chattopadhyay, S., & Sengupta, S. (2020). Multi-resolution-analysis-based line-to-ground fault detection in a VSC-based HVDC system. IETE Journal of Research, 66(4), 491-504.
Richards, P. (2002). A CAN Physical Layer Discussion. Microchip Technology Inc. .
Robertson, T. (2014). Network diagnostic flow chart- how to troubleshoot vehicle level CAN communication and CAN diagnostic issues on Nissan and Infinity vehicles. SAE World Congress. Detroit, MI.
Tornare, J.-M., COSTES, C., & LAURINE, P. (2014, December 25). USA Patent No. US20140375326 A1.