Predicting Fall Risk Through Automatic Wearable Monitoring A Systematic Review

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Published Aug 24, 2021
Markey Olson Thurmon Lockhart

Abstract

Falls represent a major burden on elderly individuals and society as a whole. Technologies that are able to detect individuals at risk of fall before occurrence could help reduce this burden by targeting those individuals for rehabilitation to reduce risk of falls. Wearable technologies especially, which can continuously monitor aspects of gait, balance, vital signs, and other aspects of health known to be related to falls, may be useful and are in need of study. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematics Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2009 guidelines to identify articles related to the use of wearable sensors to predict fall risk. Fifty four studies were analyzed. The majority of studies (98.0%) utilized inertial measurement units (IMUs) located at the lower back (58.0%), sternum (28.0%), and shins (28.0%). Most assessments were conducted in a structured setting (67.3%) instead of with free-living data. Fall risk was calculated based on retrospective falls history (48.9%), prospective falls reporting (36.2%), or clinical scales (19.1%). Measures of the duration spent walking and standing during free-living monitoring, linear measures such as gait speed and step length, and nonlinear measures such as entropy correlate with fall risk, and machine learning methods can distinguish between falls. However, because many studies generating machine learning models did not list the exact factors being considered, it is difficult to compare these models directly. Few studies to date have utilized results to give feedback about fall risk to the patient or to supply treatment or lifestyle suggestions to prevent fall, though these are considered important by end users. Wearable technology demonstrates considerable promise in detecting subtle changes in biomarkers of gait and balance related to an increase in fall risk. However, more large-scale studies measuring increasing fall risk before first fall are needed, and exact biomarkers and machine learning methods used need to be shared to compare results and pursue the most promising fall risk measurements. There is a great need for devices measuring fall risk also to supply patients with information about their fall risk and strategies and treatments for prevention.

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Keywords

Fall risk, Wearable monitoring

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