A High Fidelity Model Based Approach to Identify Dynamic Friction in Electromechanical Actuator Ballscrews using Motor Current



Published Nov 20, 2020
Yameen M. Hussain Stephen Burrow Leigh Henson Patrick Keogh


An enhanced model based approach to monitor friction within Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) ballscrews using motor current is presented. The research was motivated by a drive in the aerospace sector to implement EMAs for safety critical applications to achieve a More Electric Aircraft (MEA). Concerns in reliability and mitigating the single of point of failure (ballscrew jamming) have resulted in consideration of Prognostics and Health Monitoring (PHM) techniques to identify the onset of jamming using motor current. A higher fidelity model based approach is generated for a true representation of ballscrew degradation, whereby the motor is modelled using ‘dq axis’ transformation theory to include a better representation of the motor dynamics. The ballscrew kinematics are to include the contact mechanics of the main sources of friction through the Stribeck model. The simulations demonstrated feature extraction of the dynamic behaviour in the system using Iq current signals. These included peak starting current features during acceleration and transient friction variation. The simulated data were processed to analyse peak Iq currents and classified to represent three health states (Healthy, Degrading and Faulty) using k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) algorithm. A classification accuracy of ~74% was achieved.

Abstract 218 | PDF Downloads 261



Prognostics, Health Monitoring, Aerospace, Electromechanical Actuators, Ballscrew, Fault Classification

Armstrong-Helouvry , B., Dupont, P., & De Wit, C. (1994). A Survey of Models, Analysis Tools and Compensation Methods for the Control of Machines with Friction. Automatica Volume 30, 1083-1138.
Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Bansal, P., Goebel, K., Curran, S., & Stoelting, P. (2009). A Diagnostic Approach for Electromechanical Actuators in Aerospace Systems.
Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Goebel, K., Byington, C., Watson, M., Bharadwaj, S., and Smith, M. (2009). Experimental Data Collection and Modelling for Nominal and Fault Conditions on Electro-mechanical Actuators. PHM.
Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Narasimhan, S., Roychoudhury, I., and Goebel, K. (2011). Experimental Validation of a Prognostic Health Management System for Electro-Mechanical Actuators. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Bennett, J., Mecrow, B., Atkinson, D., and Atkinson, G. (2010). Safety-critical design of electromechanical actuation systems in commercial aircraft. IET Electric Power Applications, 37-47.
Bodden, D. S., Clements, S., Schley, B., and Jenney, G. (2007). Seeded Failure Testing and Analysis of an Electromechanical Actuator. Aerospace Conference IEEE, 1-8.
Boeing. (1994). 757 Operations Manual. Seattle: The Boeing Company.
Bowden, F., and Tabor, D. (1950). The Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Donald, S., Garg, S., Hunter, G., Guo, T.-H., and Semega, K. (2004). Sensor Needs for Control and Health Management of Intelligent Aicraft Engines. NASA Technical Paper.
Gao, J., & Kang, J. (2014). Modeling and Simulation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Vector Control. Information Technology Journal, 578-582.
Hoffman, A., Hansen, I., Beach, R., Plencner, R., Dengler, R., Jefferies, K., and Frye, R. (1985). Advanced Secondary Power System for Transport Aircraft. NASA Technical Paper.
Ismail, M., Balaban, E., and Spangenberg, H. (2016). Fault Detection and Classification for Flight Control Electromechanical Actuators. Aerospace Conference. IEEE.
Isturiz, A., Vinals, J., Manuel, A., and Aitzol, I. (2012). Health Monitoring Strategy for Electromechanical Actuator Systems and Components, Screw Backlash and Fatigue Estimation. Recent Advances in Aeropsace Actuation Systems and Components.
Jeong, Y., & Cho, D. (2002). Estimating Cutting Force from Rotating and Stationary Feed Motor Currents on a Milling Machine. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 1559-1566.
Jiang, H., Song, X., Xu, X., Tang, W., Zhang, C., and Han, Y. (2010). Multibody dynamics simulation of Balls impact-contact mechanics in Ball Screw Mechanism. 2010 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering (pp. 1320-1323). IEEE.
Karter, J. (2016). Machine Learning, Design of Experiments and Statistical Process Control using Matlab. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
Lee, W., Lee, J., Hong, M., Nam, S., Jeon, Y., and Lee, M. (2015). Failure Diagnosis System for a Ball-Screw by Using Vibration Signals. Hindawi Shock and Vibration.
Maggiore, P., Vedova, M., Pace, L., & Desando, A. (2014). Definition of Parametric Methods for Fault Analysis applied to an Electromechanical Servomechanism affected by Multiple Failures. European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. PHM.
McNier, T. (2016). Specifying, Selecting and Applying Linear Ball Screw Drives. Thomson.
Murphy, K. (2012). Machine Learning, A Probabalistic Perspective. The MIT Press.
Ninomiya, M., and Miyaguchi, K. (1998). Recent Technical Trends in Ball Screws. NSK Technical Journal: Motion Control, 1-3.
Park, R. H. (1929). Two Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines. AIEE Transactions 48, 716-730.
Song, X., Jian, L., Zhao-tan, W., Xian-yin, L., and Bao-min, L. (2005). Research and Development of Test System of Combination Property of High-Speed Ball Screw Unit. Tool Engineering, 34-36.
THK. (2017). Retrieved from Linear Motion Tips: http://www.linearmotiontips.com/what-is-back-driving-and-why-is-it-important/
Vahid-Araghi, O., and Golnaraghi, F. (2011). Friction-Induced Vibration in Lead Screw Drives. Springer.
Vas, P. (1996). Electrical Machines and Drives: A Space-Vector Theory Approach. Oxford.
Wei , C., and Lin, J. (2004). Kinematic Analysis of the Ball Screw Mechanism Considering Variable Contact Angles and Elastic Deformations. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 717-733.
Xu, S., Yao, Z., Sun, Y., and Shen, H. (2014). Load Distribution of Ball Screw With Consideration of Contact Angle Variation and Geometry Errors. International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. ASME.
Technical Papers