One of the most significant research trends in the last decades of the aeronautic industry is the effort to move towards the design and the production of “more electric aircraft”. Within this framework, the application of the electrical technology to flight control systems has seen a progressive, although slow, increase: starting with the introduction of fly-by-wire and proceeding with the partial replacement of the traditional hydraulic/electro-hydraulic actuators with purely electro-mechanical ones. This evolution allowed to obtain more flexible solutions, reduced installation issues and enhanced aircraft control capability. Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMAs) are however far from being a mature technology and still suffer from several safety issues, which can be partially limited by increasing the complexity of their design and hence their production costs. The development of a robust Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system could provide a way to prevent the occurrence of a critical failure without resorting to complex device design. This paper deals with the first part of the study of a comprehensive PHM system for EMAs employed as primary flight control actuators; the peculiarities of the application are presented and discussed, while a novel approach, based on short pre-flight/post-flight health monitoring tests, is proposed. Turn-to-turn short in the electric motor windings is identified as the most common electrical degradation and a particle filtering framework for anomaly detection and prognosis featuring a self-tuning non-linear model is proposed. Features, anomaly detection and a prognostic algorithm are hence evaluated through state-of-the art performance metrics and their results discussed.
flight control system, EMA, Anomaly Detection, Failure Prognosis, Particle Filtering
Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Goebel, K., Byington, C.S., Watson, M., Bharadwaj, S., & Smith M. (2009). Experimental data collection and modeling for nominal and fault conditions on electro-mechanical actuators. Annual Conference of Prognostics and Health Management Society, September 27-October 1, San Diego, CA, USA.
Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Narasimhan, S., Roychoudhury, I., Gobel, K.F., & Koopmans M. (2010). Airborne electro-mechanical actuator test stand for development of prognostic health management systems. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, October 10-16, Portland, OR, USA.
Belmonte, D., Dalla Vedova, M.D.L., & Maggiore, P. (2015). New prognostic method based on spectral analysis techniques dealing with motor static eccentricity for aerospace electromechanical actuators. WSEAS Transactions on Systems, vol. 14.
Bonnett, A.K., & Soukup, G.C. (1991). Cause and analysis of stator and rotor failures in 3-phase squirrel cage induction motors. Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, 3-7 June, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Brown, D., Abbas, M., Ginart, A., Ali, I., Kalgren, P., & Vachtsevanos G. (2010). Turn-off time as a precursor for gate bipolar transistor latch-up faults in electric motor drives. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, October 10-16, Portland, OR.
Brown, D.W., Georgoulas, G., Bole, B., Pei, H.L., Orchard, M., Tang, L., Saha, B., Saxena, A., Goebel, K., & Vachtsevanos G. (2009). Prognostics enhanced reconfigurable control of electro-mechanical actuators. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, September 27-October 1, San Diego, CA.
Christmann, M., Seemann, S., & Janker, P. (2010). Innovative approaches to electromechanical flight control actuators and system. Recent Advances in Aerospace Actuation Systems and Components, May 5-7 Touluse, France.
Cruz, S.M.A., & Cardoso, A.J.M. (2002). Stator winding fault diagnosis in three-phase synchronous and asynchronous motors, by the extended Park’s vector approach, IEEE Transactions on Industry, vol. 37 (5).
De Martin, A., Jacazio, G., & Vachtsevanos, G. (2016). Anomaly detection and prognosis for primary flight control EMAs, 3rd European Conference of the Prognostics and Healh Management Society, July 5-8, Bilbao, Spain.
Derrien, J., Tieys, P., Senegas, D., & Todeschi, M. (2011). EMA Aileron COVADIS development, SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2729.
Gokdere, L. U. , Bogdanov, A., Chiu, S. L., Keller, K. J. & Vian, J. (2006). Adaptive control of lifetime. IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 4-11, Big Sky, MT, USA.
Hanselman, D. (2006). Brushless Permanent Magnet Design. Magna Physics.
He, C., Li, J., & Vachtsevanos, G. (2015). Prognostics and health management of an automated machining process, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2015.
Jacazio, G., Maggiore, P., Della Vedova, M., & Sorli, M. (2010). Identification of precursors of servovalves failures for implementation of an effective prognostics. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Aerospace Actuation Systems and Components, May 5-7, Toulouse, France.
Jensen, S.C., Jenney, G.D., & Dawson, D. (2000). Flight test experience with an electromechanical actuator on the F-18 system research aircraft. Proceedings of the 19th DASC 1, October 7-13, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Lessmeier, C., Enge-Rosenblatt, O., Bayer, C., & Zimmes, D. (2014). Data acquisition and signal analysis from measured motor currents for defect detection in electromechanical drive systems. European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, July 8-10, Nantes, France.
Li, H., Ye, X., Chen, C., & Vachtsevanos, G. (2014). A framework for model-based diagnostics and prognostics of switched-mode power supplies. Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, September 29 – October 2, Fort Worth, TX, USA.
Mohan, N. (2003). First Course on Power Electronics and Drive. Minnesota: MNPERE.
Nandi, S., Toliyat, H.A., & Li, X. (2005). Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of electrical motors – a review. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 20 (4), pp. 719-729.
Nordin, M., Gallic, J., & Gutman, P.O. (1997). New models for backlash and gear play. International Journal od Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, vol. 11, pp. 49-63.
Orchard, M. (2007). A particle filtering-based framework for on-line fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, Doctoral dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Orchard, M., & Vachtsevanos, G. (2009). A particle filtering approach for on-line fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, vol. 31 (3-4), pp. 221-246.
Phillips, W.F. (2004). Mechanics of Flight. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Pratt, R. (2000). Flight control systems: practical issues in design and implementation. UK: IET.
Recksieck, M. (2012). Advanced high lift system architecture with distributed electrical flap. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Aircraft System Technologies, March 26-27, Hamburg, Germany.
Roemer, M.J., Tang, L.. (2015). Integrated vehicle health and fault contingency management for UAVs In Valavanis, K & Vachtsevanos, G. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicle, Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Roemer, M., Byngton, C., Kackprszynski, G., Vachtsevanos, G., & Goebel, K. (2011). Prognostics In Johnson, S.B., System Health Management with Aerospace Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 281-295.
Saxena, A., Celaya, J., Balaban, E., Goebel, K., Sasha, B., & Schwabacher M. (2008). Metrics for evaluating performance of prognostic techniques, International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management, October 6-9, Denver, CO, USA.
Schmidt, M., & Lipson, H. (2009). Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data. Science, vol. 324 (5923), pp 81-85.
Vachtsevanos, G., Lewis, F. L., Roemer, M., Hess, A., & Wu, B. (2006). Intelligent fault diagnosis and prognosis for engineering system. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Van Der Linden, F. L.J., Dreyer, N., & Dorkel, A. (2016). EMA Health Monitoring: An Overview. Recent Advances in Aerospace Actuation Systems and Components, March 16-18, Toulouse, France.
Wang, L., Maré, J.C., & Fu, Y. (2012). Investigation in the dynamic force equalization of dissimilar redundant actuation systems operating in active/active mode. 28th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, September 23-28, Brisbane, Australia.