Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable effective and efficient maintenance and operation of the target vehicle. It accounts for the collecting of data, conducting analysis, and supporting the decision-making process for sustainment and operation. The design of IVHM systems endeavours to account for all causes of failure in a disciplined, systems engineering, manner. With industry striving to reduce through-life cost, IVHM is a powerful tool to give forewarning of impending failure and hence control over the outcome. Benefits have been realised from this approach across a number of different sectors but, hindering our ability to realise further benefit from this maturing technology, is the fact that IVHM is still treated as added on to the design of the asset, rather than being a sub-system in its own right, fully integrated with the asset design. The elevation and integration of IVHM in this way will enable architectures to be chosen that accommodate health ready sub-systems from the supply chain and design trade-offs to be made, to name but two major benefits. Barriers to IVHM being integrated with the asset design are examined in this paper. The paper presents progress in overcoming them, and suggests potential solutions for those that remain. It addresses the IVHM system design from a systems engineering perspective and the integration with the asset design will be described within an industrial design process.
systems engineering, Integrated Vehicle Health Management, Validation and Verification, Cost Benefit Analysis, Design
Banks, J., Reichard, K., Crow, E., and Nickell, K., 2009. How engineers can conduct cost-benefit analysis for PHM systems. Aerosp Electron Syst Mag IEEE 24(3), pp. 22–30.
Bartz, D., and Reisig, C., 2008. “Bringing focus to IVHM solution development.” Proceedings of the IEEE AUTOTESTCON Conference, pp. 569-573.
Blanchard, B.S. Verma, D. and Peterson, E.L., 1995, Maintainability: A key to effective serviceability and maintenance management, John Wiley and Sons.
Boehm, B. 1987, Industrial Software Metrics: A Top Ten List, IEEE Software, pp. 84-85.
Business Week, 1990. A Smarter Way to Manufacture, McGraw-Hill, Inc. April 30, pp. 110
Cortez, J., Keller, K., and Poblete, J. 2008a. Establishing an approach to systematically improve the effectiveness of fleet support. IEEE AutoTest Conference, Sep 8-11, Salt Lake City, UT.
Cortez, J., Keller, K., and Poblete, J. 2008b. Systematic improvement of fleet operations by integrating enterprise health and maintenance data. IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 1-8, Big Sky, MT, Paper #1340.
Daigle, M. J., and Goebel, K., 2011. A model-based prognostics approach applied to pneumatic valves. International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, 2(2), 008.
Datta, K and Squires, D (2004), A methodology to quantify some IVHM requirements during RLV conceptual design, Reliability and Maintainability, 2004 Annual Symposium—RAMS, p. 485.
Esperon-Miguez, M., John, P., and Jennions, I.K., 2013. A review of Integrated Vehicle Health Management tools for legacy platforms: Challenges and opportunities. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 56, pp19-34.
Fagan, M.E., 2001. Advances in software inspections. In Pioneers and Their Contributions to Software Engineering (pp. 335-360). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Forsberg, K., Mooz, H., and Cotterman, H., 2005. Visualisation Project Management, third edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, PP. 108-116, 242-248, 341-360.
Graydon, P.J., Knight, J.C., and Strunk, E.A., 2007. Assurance based development of critical systems. 37th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), June, pp. 347-57.
Grubic, T., 2014. Servitization and remote monitoring technology: A literature review and research agenda. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 25 Iss: 1, pp.100 – 12.
Gulati, R. D., 2012. Maintenance and Reliability Best Practices, Industrial Press Inc., U.S, ISBN: 9870831134341.
Heaton, A., 2014. A Method to Support the Requirements Trade-Off of Integrated Vehicle Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems. PhD Thesis, Cranfield University.
Hess, A., Calvello, G., Frith, P., Engel, S. J., Hoitsma, D., 2006. Challenges, issues, and lessons learned chasing the “ Big P”: real predictive prognostics part 2. In: IEEE 2006 Aerospace Conference.
Hooks, I.F. and Farry, K. A., 2000. Customer Centred Products: Creating Successful Product Through Smart Requirements Management, AMACOM, American Management Association.
Holland, S., Felke, T., Hernandez, L., Safa-Bakhsh, R. et al., 2016, "Health Ready Components-Unlocking the Potential of IVHM," SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 9(2):2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0075.
IEEE Standard 610.12,https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/610.12-1990.html (accessed 7.5.15)
INCOSE (International Council for Systems Engineering), 2007. Systems Engineering Handbook – A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities. INCOSE-TP-2003-002-03.1.
Johnston, J., 2008. Developing a business case analysis (BCA) to evaluate performance based logistics (PBL). 2nd Annual Navy/Marine Corps Cost
Analysis Symposium, September 4, Quantico, VA. Johnson, S.B. and Day, J.C., 2010. Conceptual framework for a fault management design methodology. AIAA Infotech Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, April, AIAA, Paper 227006.
Kapurch, S., 2010. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, Diane Publishing
Karlsson, J., and Ryan, K., 1997. A Cost-Value Approach for Prioritizing Requirements, IEEE Software, Vol. 14. No. 5, pp. 67-74.
Keller, K., Baldwin A., Ofsthun, S. Swearinger, K., Vian, J., Wilmering, T. and Williams, Z., 2007. Health management engineering environment and open integration platform. IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, USA, Paper #1319.
Kumar, U.D., Crocker, J., Knezevic, J., El-Haram, M., 2000. Reliability, Maintenance, and Logistic Support—A Life Cycle Approach, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell.
Lee, B. H., 2001. Using FMEA models and ontologies to build diagnostic models. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 15, 281-293.
Lidwell, W., Holden, K. and Butler, J., 2010. Universal principles of design, revised and updated: 125 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design. Rockport Pub.
Lopez I., Sarigul-Klijn N. A review of uncertainty in flight vehicle structural damage monitoring, diagnosis and control: Challenges and opportunities. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 2010;46(7):247–273
MoD, 2014. The defence logistic support chain manual, Integrated Logistic Support Policy, JSP 886, Vol. 7, Part 1.
MacConnell, J.H., 2007. SHM and design: A review of the benefits of the ideal ISHM system. Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference, Paper #1596.
McConnell, S., 2004. Complete Code, Microsoft Press, ISBN: 0735619670.
Morris, N.M. and Rouse, W.B., 1985. Review and evaluation of empirical research in troubleshooting. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 27(5), pp.503-530.
Narayan, V., 2004. Effective Maintenance Management. Industrial Press.
NASA, 2004. Project Management: Systems Engineering: Project Control Processes and Requirements.
NASA, 2007. Systems Engineering Handbook, NASA/SP- 2007-6105 Rev1
Niculita, O., Jennions, I.K, and Irving, P., 2013a. Design for Diagnostic and Prognostics: A Physical-Functional approach. In Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, Paper #2393.
Niculita O., Jennions I.K., and Irving, P., 2013b. The Integrated Vehicle Health Management Development Process: Verification and Validation of Simulation Models. In Proceedings of Prognostics and System Health Management Conference.
Ofsthun S., 2007. “Diagnostic challenges.” In proceedings of The 18th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis (DX-07).
Ofsthun, S., 2002. Integrated Vehicle Health Management for Aerospace Platforms, IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, pp. 21 – 24.
Pahl, G. and Beitz, W., 1988. Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach. Published by Springer- Verlag. Berlin
Pecht, M., 2008.Prognostics and health monitoring of electronics. John Wiley & Sons
Price, D.C., Scott, D.A., Edwards, G.C., Batten, A., Farmer, A.J., Hedley, M., Johnson, M.E., Lewis, C.J., Poulton, G.T., Prokopenko, M. and Valencia, P., 2003. An integrated health monitoring system for an ageless aerospace vehicle. Structural health monitoring, pp.310-318.
Rajamani, R., Saxena, A., Kramer, F., Augustin, M. et al., 2013. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems. SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2333, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2333.
Rainer, A. and Hall, T., 2002. Key success factors for implementing software process improvement: a maturity-based analysis. Journal of Systems and Software, 62(2), pp.71-84.
Rainer, A. and Hall, T., 2003. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors affecting software processes. Journal of Systems and Software, 66(1), pp.7-21.
Rolls-Royce 2015 Annual Report,http://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Files/R/Rolls-Royce/documents/investors/annual-reports/2015-annual-report-v1.pdf, accessed 28.10.16
SAE 2016 IVHM and Maintenance Credit Workshop, http://www.sae.org/standardsdev/ivhmws/,accessed 28.10.16.
Sandborn, P.A., and Wilkinson, C., 2007. A Maintenance Planning and Business Case Development Model for the Application of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) to Electronic Systems. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, No. 12, pp. 1889-1901.
Sandborn, P., and Feldman, K., 2008. The Economics of PHM. In Prognostics and Health Management of Electronics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp. 85-118.
Saxena, A., Roychoudhury, I., Celaya, J., Saha, B., Saha, S., and Goebel, K., 2012. Requirement flowdown for prognostics health management. In Proceedings of the AIAA Infotech @ Aerospace.
Saxena, A., Roychoudhury, I., Lin, W., and Goebel, K., 2013. Towards requirements in systems engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design. In Proceedings of the AIAA Infotech @ Aerospace.
Scandura, P.A., Jr and Garcia-Galan, C. (2004), A unified system to provide crew alerting, electronic checklists and maintenance using IVHM, Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2004. DASC 04, 23rd, Vol. 2, p. 7.
Scandura, P. A., 2005, Integrated Vehicle Health Management as a System Engineering Discipline. IEEE.
Sheppard, J. W., and Wilmering, T. J., 2006. Recent advances in IEEE standards for diagnosis and diagnostic maturation. In Proceeding of the IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana
Simpson, W., Kelly, B., and Gilreath, A., 1986. Predictors of organizational-level testability attributes. Annapolis, Maryland: ARINC Research Corporation. Publication 1511-02-2-4179.
Sonderholm, P., 2007. A system view of the no fault found (NFF) phenomenon. Reliability Engineering & Systems Safety Journal, 92(1), pp. 1–14.
Sreenuch, T., Tsourdos, A., and Jennions, I.K., 2013. Distributed embedded condition monitoring management systems based on OSA-CBM standard. Computer Standards & Interfaces, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp. 238–246.
Sreenuch, T., Tsourdos, A., and Jennions, I.K., 2014. Software framework for prototyping embedded integrated vehicle health management applications. Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, Volume 11, Number 2, pp. 82-97.
Stecki, J. S., Rudov-Clark, S., and Stecki, C. 2014.The Rise and Fall of CBM (Condition Based Maintenance), Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 588, pp. 290-301.
Stone, R.B., Tumer, I.Y., and Stock, M.E. 2005a. Linking product function to historical failures to improve failure analysis in design. Research in Engineering design, 16(2), pp. 96-108.
Stone, R.B., Tumer, I.Y., Van Wie, M. 2005b. The function failure design method. Journal of Mechanical design, 127 (3), pp.397-407.
Struss, P., B. Rehfus, R. Brignolo, F. Cascio, L. Console, P. Dague, P. Dubois, O. Dressler, and D. Millet, 2002. Model-based Tools for the Integration of Design and Diagnosis into a Common Process – A Project Report. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Principles of Diag. DX, pp. 25 -32.
Tukker, A., and Tischner, U., 2006. New Business for Old Europe: Product Service Development, Competitiveness and Sustainability. Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK, p. 33.
Tumer, I. Y., and Stone, R. B., 2003. Mapping function to failure mode during component development. Research in Engineering Design, 14(1), pp. 25-33.
US Air Force, 2005. SMC Systems Engineering Primer and Handbook.
Vandermerwe, S. and Rada, J., 1998. Servitization of Business: Adding Value by Adding Services. European Management Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 314-324.
Vogl, G.W., Weiss, B.A., and Donmez, M.A., 2014. Standards for Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) Techniques within Manufacturing Operations. PHM Conference, Ft Worth.
Walley P. Statistical reasoning with imprecise probabilities. 1st ed. Chapman and Hall / CRC; 1990.
Walker, M., and Kapadia, R., 2009. Integrated design of online health and prognostics management. In Proceedings of Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society.
Walker, M. G., 2010. Next generation prognostics and health management for unmanned aircraft. IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, pp. 1-14.
Williams, Z., 2006. Benefits of IVHM: an analytical approach. IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 4- 11, Big Sky, MT, Paper #1507.
Williams, Z., and Poblete, J., 2006. Simulation approaches to IVHM operational benefits analysis. Military Operations Research Symposium, June 13-15, Colorado Springs, CO.
Wilmering, T.J., 2003. When good diagnostics go bad – Why maturation is still hard. In Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT.
Wilmering, T., and Ramesh, A.V., 2005. Assessing the impact of health management approaches on system total costs ownership. IEEE Aerospace Conference, March 5-12, Big Sky, MT, Paper
Wilmering, T. J., and Ofsthun S. C., 2006. Towards a Generalized Framework for Health Management Application Integration. In Proceedings of the IEEE AUTOTESTCON Conference. pp. 204-209.
Wilmering, T. J., 2008. A practical examination of model reuse in support of health management application integration. In Proceedings of the IEEE AUTOTESTCON Conference, pp. 189-194.
Wirth, R., Berthold, B., Krämer, A., and Peter, G., 1996. Knowledge-Based Support of System Analysis for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 9, 219-229.