Multivariate sensor data collected from manufacturing and process industries represents actual operational behavior and can be used for predictive maintenance of the plants. Anomaly detection and diagnosis, that forms an integral part of predictive maintenance, in industrial systems is however challenging due to their complex behavior, interactions among sensors, corrective actions of control systems and variability in anomalous behavior. While several statistical techniques for anomaly detection have been in use for a long time, these are not particularly suited for temporal (or contextual) anomalies that are characteristic of multivariate time series sensor data. On the other hand, several machine learning and deep learning techniques for anomaly detection gained significant interest in the recent years. Further, anomaly diagnosis that involves localization of the faults did not receive much attention. In this work, we compare the anomaly detection and diagnosis capabilities, in semi-supervised mode, of several statistical, machine learning and deep learning techniques on two systems viz. the interacting quadruple tank system and the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system both of which are representative of the complexity of large industrial systems. The techniques studied include principal component analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), one-class support vector machine (OCSVM), isolation forest, elliptic envelope, dense auto-encoder and long short term memory auto-encoder (LSTM AE). The study revealed that MD and LSTM-AE have the highest anomaly detection capability, followed closely by PCA and OCSVM. The above techniques also exhibited good diagnosis capability. The study indicates that statistical techniques in spite of their simplicity could be as powerful as machine learning and deep learning techniques, and may be considered for anomaly detection and diagnosis in manufacturing systems.
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Multivariate time series, Industrial data, Anomaly Detection, Anomaly Diagnosis, unsupervised, Deep learning
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