The Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB) industry is rapidly growing and is expected to continue expanding exponentially in the next decade. LIBs are already widely used in everyday life, and their demand is expected to increase further, particularly in the automotive sector. The European Union has introduced a new law to ban Internal Combustion Engines from 2035, pushing for the adoption of electric vehicles and increasing the need for more efficient and reliable energy storage solutions such as LIBs. As a result, the establishment of Gigafactories in Europe and the United States is accelerating to meet the growing demand and partially reduce dependencies on China, which is currently the main producer of LIBs.
To fully realize the potential of LIBs and ensure their safe and sustainable use, it is crucial to optimize their useful life and develop reliable and robust methodologies for estimating their state of health and predicting their remaining useful life. This requires a comprehensive understanding of LIB behavior and the development of effective prognostic and health management approaches that can accurately predict battery degradation, plan for maintenance and replacements, and improve battery performance and lifespan.
This work, funded by the GREYDIENT project, a European consortium aiming to advance the state of the art in the grey-box approach, combines physical modeling (white box) and machine learning (black box) techniques to demonstrate the grey-box effectiveness in the Prognostic and Health Management. The grey-box approach here proposed consist in a combination of a physical battery model whose degradation parameters are estimated online at every cycle by a Multi-Layer Perceptron Particle Filter (MLP-PF).
An electrochemical degradation model of a Lithium-Ion battery cell has been derived by use of Modelica. The model simulates the output voltage of the cell, while the degradation over time is simulate through the variation of 3 parameters: qMax (maximum number of Lithium-Ions available), R0 (Internal Resistance) and D (Diffusion Coefficient). To validate the model we resorted to the well-known NASA Battery Dataset, which has also been used to infer the optimal values of the three hidden degradation parameters at every cycle, to obtain their Run-to-Failure history. Then, the physical model is combined the MLP-PF: a MLP
Artificial Neural Network is firstly trained on the Run-to-Failure degradation processes of the model parameters, allowing the propagation of the parameters in the future and the corresponding estimation of the battery Remaining Use ful Life (RUL). The MLP is then updated online by a Particle Filter every time a new measurement is available from the Battery Management System (BMS), providing flexibility to this method, needed for the electrochemical nature of the batteries, and allowing the propagation of uncertainties.
How to Cite
Lithium-Ion Batteries, Particle Filter, Modelica, Physical Model, Grey-Box
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