Estimation of Bogie Performance Criteria Through On-Board Condition Monitoring



Parham Shahidi Dan Maraini Brad Hopkins Andrew Seidel


In this paper, bogie performance criteria are reviewed and it is shown that a real-time, on-board condition monitoring system can efficiently monitor these criteria to improve failure mode detection in freight rail operations. Although the dynamics of rail car bogie performance are well understood in the industry, this topic has recently received renewed attention through impending regulatory changes. These changes seek to extend empty rail car performance criteria to include loaded rail cars as well. Currently, the monitoring of bogie performance is primarily accomplished by wayside detection systems in North America. These systems are only sparsely deployed in the track network and do not offer the ability to monitor bogies continuously. The lack of these elements leads to unexpected downtimes resulting in costly reactive maintenance and lengthy periods of time before an adequate performance history can be established. This paper reviews performance criteria which critically influence bogie performance and proposes a vibration based condition monitoring strategy to estimate system component deterioration and their contribution to the development of bogie hunting. The strategy addresses both sensing techniques and monitoring algorithms to maximize the efficiency of the monitoring solution. In particular it is proposed that understanding the relation of different hunting modes to car body oscillations can be used for a deeper understanding of the rail car condition which current technologies are not able to provide.

How to Cite

Shahidi, P., Maraini, D. ., Hopkins, B. ., & Seidel, A. . (2014). Estimation of Bogie Performance Criteria Through On-Board Condition Monitoring. Annual Conference of the PHM Society, 6(1).
Abstract 91 | PDF Downloads 356



Condition Based Maintenance, on-board, freight rail, bogie performance, hunting, lateral instability

AAR. (2007). Design, Fabrication, and Construction of Freight Cars Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices C-II (Vol. [M-1001]).

Fujie, X., & True, H. (2003, 22-24 April 2003). On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck. Paper presented at the Rail Conference, 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE/ASME Joint.

Iwnicki, S. (2006). Handbook of railway vehicle dynamics: CRC Press.

Klingel, W. (1883). Über den Lauf der Eisenbahnwagen auf gerader Bahn. Organ für die Fortschritte des Eisenbahnwesens, 20, 113-123.

Li, P., & Goodall, R. (2004). Model-based condition monitoring for railway vehicle systems. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the UKACC international conference on control, Bath, UK.

Pogorelov, D., Simonov, V., Kovalev, R., Yazykov, V., & Lysikov, N. (2009). Simulation of Freight Car Dynamics: Mathematical Models, Safety, Wear. Paper presented at the International Conference on Recent Advances in Railway Engineering (ICRARE), Tehran, Iran.

Sawley, K., Urban, C., & Walker, R. (2005). The effect of hollow-worn wheels on vehicle stability in straight track. Wear, 258(7–8), 1100-1108. DOI:

Sawley, K., & Wu, H. (2005). The formation of hollow- worn wheels and their effect on wheel/rail interaction. Wear, 258(7–8), 1179-1186. DOI:

Shabana, A. A., Zaazaa, K. E., & Sugiyama, H. (2010). Railroad vehicle dynamics: A computational approach: CRC Press.

Sunder, R., Kolbasseff, A., Kieninger, A., Rohm, A., &Walter, J. (2001). Operational experiences with onboard diagnosis system for high speed trains. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the World Congress on Rail Research.

Tournay, H., Wu, H., & Wilson, N. (2009). A Review of the Root Causes for Loaded Car Hunting, Technology Digest TD-09-014: AAR, TTCI, Pueblo, CO.

Tournay, H. M., & Lang, R. (2007). History and Teardown Results of Five Loaded Coal Cars Identified as Poor Performers while Passing accorss a Truck Performance Detector R-985.
Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads/ Transportation Technologies Center, Inc.

Tournay, H. M., Lang, R., & Wolgram, T. (2006). History and Teardown Results of a Coal Car Identified as a Poor Performer while Passing Loaded Across a
Truck Performance Detector R-976. Association of American Railroads50 F Street, NW Washington, DC 2001.

Tournay, H. M., Lang, R., Wolgram, T., & Chapman, S. (2006). Interpreting Truck Performance Detector Data To Establish Car And Truck Condition R-977 (Vol. R-977). Association of American Railroads50 F Street, NW Washington, DC 2001.

Tournay, H. M., Wu, H., & Wilson, N. (2008). Investigation into the Root Causes for Loaded Car Hunting R- 995. Association of American Railroads 50 F Street, NW Washington, DC 2001.

Tsunashima, H., & Mori, H. (2010, 27-30 Oct. 2010).Condition monitoring of railway vehicle suspension using adaptive multiple model approach. Paper presented at the Control Automation and Systems (ICCAS), 2010 International Conference on.

Wickens, A. H. (1998). The dynamics of railway vehicles— from Stephenson to Carter. DOI: 10.1243/0954409981530805

Zakharov, S. M., & Zharov, I. A. (2005). Criteria of bogie performance and wheel/rail wear prediction based on wayside measurements. Wear, 258(7–8), 1135- 1141. doi:
Technical Research Papers