An Integrated Health Management and Prognostic Technology for Composite Airframe Structures
Next generation technology of integrated health management systems for air-transportation structures will combine different single SHM methods to an overall system with multiple abilities considering different stages of damage initiation and propagation. The fundamental configuration of the proposed SHM technique will involve the idea of an integrated passive/active monitoring and diagnostic system extended by numerical modules for lifetime prediction. The overall system is capable of providing real-time load monitoring and damage estimation on a global structure level as well as precise damage diagnostics on a local level. This robust diagnostic technique provides quantifiable damage location and size estimation that account for the uncertainties induced by the environments or the system itself continuously during flight. Additionally, efficient prediction and prognostic methods are integrated with monitoring and diagnostic outputs to provide real time estimation of possible damage scenarios, residual strength, and remaining useful life of the damaged structure. From this result information is gained which allow appropriate preventative actions on the monitored structure. To achieve those objectives, a built-in sensor/actuator network is employed and numerical simulation methods of damage estimation and propagation are developed and applied. The goal of this work is to integrate all these single techniques and subsystems into an integrated structural health management system for composite airframe structures. The system design, data exchange between the different subsystems, and the performance of each module is presented.
How to Cite
diagnosis, structural health management, structural health monitoring, applications: aviation
(Brammer and Percival, 1970) J. A. Brammer and C. M. Percival. Elevated-temperature elastic moduli of 2024 aluminum obtained by a laser-pulse technique. Experimental Mechanics, 10(6):245–250, 1970.
(Chang and Beard, 1997) F.-K. Chang and S. Beard. Active damage detection in filament wound composite tubes using built-in sensors and actuators. Journal of Intelligent Material, Systems and Structures, 8:891–897, 1997.
(ChangandIhn,2004) F.-K.ChangandJ.-B.Ihn.De- tection and monitoring of hidden fatigue crack growth using a built-in piezoelectric sensor/actuator network: Part ii: validation through riveted joints and repair patches. In C. T. Sun et al (editors), ASME - AD, pages 621–630, 2004.
(Chang and Qing, 1997) F.-K. Chang and X. L. Qing. Recent advances in structural joints and repairs for composite materials. In Edited by L. Tong and C. Soutis, Kluwer Academic Publisher, pages 101– 140, 1997.
(Chang and Roh, 1995) F.-K. Chang and Y. Roh. Ef- fect of impact damage on lamb wave propagation in laminated composite structures. In C. T. Sun et al (editors), ASME - AD, 46:127–138, 1995.
(Chang and Seydel, 2001) F.-K. Chang and R. E. Sey- del. Impact identification of stiffened composite panels: Part i: system developments. In Smart Materials Structures. Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001.
(Chang et al., 2008) F.-K. Chang, I. Mueller, and K. Lonkar. Integrated passive-active interactive diagnostic technique based on efficient inverse methods for condition monitoring and damage detection for an integrated vehicle health management. In Annual Report to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 2008.
(Choi, 1990) H. Choi. Damage in graphite/epoxy laminated composites due to low-velocity impact. In Dissertation, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 1990.
(Doyle, 1987) J. F. Doyle. Experimentally determining the contact force during the transverse impact on an orthptropic plate. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 118:441–448, 1987.
(Fogg et al., 1993) B. R. Fogg, M. F. Gunther, and A. Wang. Fiber optic impact detection and location system embedded in a composite material. In Proceedings of SPIE Conference, pages 262–269, 1993.
(Geubelle and Baylor, 1988) P. H. Geubelle and J. S. Baylor. Impact-induced de-lamination of composites: a 2d simulation. Composites, Part B, 29B:589– 602, 1988.
(Ha et al., 2009) S. Ha, A. Mittal, K. Lonkar, and F.- K. Chang. Adhesive layer effects on temperature- sensitive lamb waves induced by surface-mounted pzt actuators. In Proceedings of 7th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stan- ford CA, pages 2221–2233, 2009.
(Hadamard, 1923) J. Hadamard. Lectures on the cauchy problem in linear partial differential equa- tions. In University Press, New Haven, 1923.
(Harris, 2003) B. Harris. Fatigue in composites. In Woodhead Publishing, 2003.
(Hashin, 1980) Z. Hashin. Failure criteria for unidirectional fiber composites. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 47:329–334, 1980.
(Jiang et al., 1998) Y. P. Jiang, K. Chandrashekara, and A. C. Okafor. Estimation of contact force on composite plates using impact induced strain and neural network. Composites Part B: Engineering, 29(4):363–370, 1998.
(Kim et al., 2008) Y. Kim, S. Ha, and F.-K. Chang. Time-domain spectral element method for built-in piezoelectric-actuator-induced lamb wave propagation analysis. AIAA Journal, 46:591–600, 2008.
(Komatitsch and Vilotte, 1998) D. Komatitsch and J.P. Vilotte. The spectral element method: An efficient tool to simulate the seismic response of 2d and 3d geological structures. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 88:368–392, 1998.
(Lafarie-Fernot et al., 2001) M. C. Lafarie-Fernot, C. Henaff-Gardin, and D. Gamby. Matrix cracking induced by cyclic ply stresses in composite laminates. Composites Science and Technology, 61:2327–2336, 2001.
(Lessard,1989) L.B.Lessard.Compressionfailurein laminated composites containing an open hole. In Dissertation, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 1989.
(Ljung, 1999) L. Ljung. System identification – theory for the user. In PTR Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1999.
(Markmiller, 2007) J. Markmiller. Quantification and optimization of a structural health monitoring system for impact detection in composite structures. In Dissertation, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 2007.
(Mueller and Chang, 2009) I. Mueller and F.-K. Chang. Model-based impact monitoring by inverse methods using particle swarm optimization. In Proceedings of IMAC XXVII, 2009.
(Nairm, 1999) J. A. Nairm. Applications of finite fracture mechanics for predicting fracture events in composites. In 5th International Conference on Deformation and Fracture of Composites, London UK, 1999.
(Park and Chang, 2003) J. Park and F.-K. Chang. Built-in detection of impact damage in multi- yayered thick composite structures. In Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford CA, pages 1391–1398, 2003.
(Park, 2005) J. Park. Impact identification in structures using a sensor network: The system identification approach. In Dissertation, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 2005.
(Raghavan and Cesnik, 2008) A. Raghavan and C. E.S. Cesnik. Effects of elevated temperature on guided-wave structural health monitoring. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 19(12):1383–1398, 2008.
(Scalea and Salamone, 2009) F. Lanza Di Scalea and S. Salamone. Temperature effects in ultrasonic lamb wave structural health monitoring systems. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(1):161–174, 2009.
(Seydel and Chang, 1999) R. E. Seydel and F.-K. Chang. Implementation of a real-time impact identification technique for stiffened composite panels. In Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford CA, 1999.
(Shahid and Chang, 1993) I. Shahid and F.-K. Chang. Progressive failure analysis of laminated composites subjected to in-plane and shear loads. In Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 1993.
(Sherrit et al., 1999) S. Sherrit, G. Yang, H. D. Wied- erick, and B. K. Mukherjee. Temperature dependence of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric material constants of lead zirconate titanate ceramics. In Proceedings of Intinternation Conference on Smart Materials, Structures and Systems, Ban- galore, India, 1999.
(Su et al., 2006) Z. Su, L. Ye, and Y. Lu. Guided lamb waves for identification of damage in composite structures: A review. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 295:753–780, 2006.
(Wang and Chang, 2000) C. Wang and F.-K. Chang. Diagnosis of impact damage in composite structures with built-in piezoelectric network. Proceedings of Smart Structures and Materials, 3990:13– 19, 2000.
(Wu and Chang, 1989) H.-Y. T. Wu and F.-K. Chang. Transient dynamic analysis of laminated composite plates subjected to transverse impact. Computers and Structures, 31(3):453–466, 1989.
(Wu and Springer, 1988) H.-Y. T. Wu and G. S. Springer. Impact induces stresses, strains and delaminations in composite plates. Journal of Composite Materials, 22:533–560, 1988.
(Yen et al., 1994) C. S. Yen, E. Wu, and J. C. Yeh. Identification of impact forces at multiple locations on laminated plates. AIAA Journal, 32:2433–2439, 1994.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.