Experimental Study of Dynamic Strain for Gear Tooth using Fiber Bragg Gratings and Piezoelectric Strain Sensors



Yongzhi Qu Liu Hong Xixin Jiang Miao He David He Yuegang Tan Zude Zhou


It has always been a critical task to understand gear dynamics for gear design and condition monitoring. Many gear models have been proposed to simulate gear meshing dynamics. However, most of the theoretical models are
based on simplified gear structure and may contain approximation errors. Direct measuring of gear strain is important to gear design validation, load analysis, reliability assessment, gear condition monitoring, etc. Most of the
existing studies of tooth strain measurements are performed under static load condition. In this paper, we investigate new measuring techniques of using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor and piezoelectric strain for gear dynamic
strain measurement. We conduct gear dynamic strain measurement under both low speed and normal speed condition on an industrial gearbox with relatively small module gears. Multi-combinations of speed and load conditions of the gearbox are tested and the results are discussed and analyzed. We analyze multiple factors that affect the tooth root stress, including speed, load, extended tooth meshing, etc. It is found that under low operation speed range, the tooth root strain is mainly determined by the torque, while in the mediate to high speed range, the tooth root strain is jointly affected by speed and torque. Extended tooth contact is shown in the measurement results with strong evidence. It conforms with earlier founding that the transmission error and dynamic load factor are overestimated while the operation smoothness are underestimated for spur gear under heavy load. The measured stains are also compared with numerical simulation.

Abstract 7 | PDF Downloads 25




[1] S. Jia, I. Howard, and J. Wang, The Dynamic Modeling of Multiple Pairs of Spur Gears in Mesh, Including Friction and Geometrical Errors, International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 437-442, 2003.
[2] J. Yoon, D. He, and B. V. Hecke, On the Use of a Single Piezoelectric Strain Sensor for Wind Turbine Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 62, No. 10, pp.65 – 85, 2015.
[3] H. Endo, R. B. Randall, and C. Gosselin, “Differential diagnosis of spall vs. cracks in the gear tooth fillet region: experimental validation,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 636–651, 2009.
[4] R.G. Parker, S.M. Vijayakar, T. Imajo, Non-linear Dynamic Response of a Spur Gear Pair: Modelling and Experimental Comparisons, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 237, Issue 3, 2000, Pages 435-455.
[5] W. Bartelmus, Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulations as an Aid to Gearbox Diagnostics, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp. 855-871, 2001.
[6] T. Eritenel, R. G. Parker, Three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 331, Issue 15, pp. 3628-3648, 2012.
[7] I. Howard, S. Jia, J. Wang, The Dynamic Modelling of a Spur Gear in Mesh Including Friction and a Crack, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 15, Issue 5, Pages 831-853, 2001.
[8] M.T. Khabou, N. Bouchaala, F. Chaari, T. Fakhfakh, M. Haddar, Study of a spur gear dynamic behavior in transient regime, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp. 3089-3101, 2011.
[9] Y. Hu, Y. Shao, Z. Chen, M. J. Zuo, Transient Meshing Performance of Gears with Different Modification Coefficients and Helical Angles Using Explicit Dynamic FEA, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp. 1786-1802, 2011.
[10] I. Yesilyurt, F. Gu, A. D. Ball, Gear Tooth Stiffness Reduction Measurement Using Modal Analysis and Its Use in Wear Fault Severity Assessment of Spur Gears, NDT & E International, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp. 357- 372, 2003.
[11] Y. Pandya, A. Parey, Experimental Investigation of Spur Gear Tooth Mesh Stiffness in The Presence of Crack Using Photoelasticity Technique, Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 34, December 2013, Pages 488-500.
[12] P. Frankovský, O. Ostertag, F. Trebuňa, E. Ostertagová , M. Kelemen, Methodology of Contact Stress Analysis of Gearwheel by Means of Experimental Photoelasticity, Applied Optics. 55(18), pp. 4856-64, 2016.
[13] N. K. Raghuwanshi, A. Parey, Experimental Measurement of Gear Mesh Stiffness of Cracked Spur Gear by Strain Gauge Technique, Measurement, Volume 86, May 2016, Pages 266-275.
[14] S. S. Patil, S. Karuppanan, I. Atanasovska, Experimental measurement of strain and stress state at the contacting helical gear pairs, Measurement, Volume 82, March 2016, Pages 313-322.
[15] H. Guo, G. Xiao, N. Mrad, and J. Yao, Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms, Sensors, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 3687-3705, 2011 .
[16] J. S. Kiddy, P. D. Samuel, D. G. Lewicki, K. E. LaBerge, R. T. Ehinger, and J. Fetty, Fiber optic strain sensor for planetary gear diagnostics, NASA Glenn Res. Center, Cleveland, OH, USA, Technical Report NASA/TM-2011-217123, Nov. 2011.
[17] C. S. Baldwin, J. S. Kiddy, and P. D. Samuel, Towards development of a fiber optic-based transmission monitoring system, Proc. SPIE 8026, Photonic Applications for Aerospace, Transportation, and Harsh Environment II, 80260N, May 25, 2011.
[18] M. Savage, K.L Rubadeux and H.H. Coe, Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth, 31st Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego,CA, U.S, July 10-12, 1995.
[19] F. B. Oswald, Gear tooth stress measurements on the UH-60A helicopter transmission, Technical Report NASA-TP-2698, E-3357, NAS 1.60:2698, United States
[20] H. H. Lin, J. Wang, F. B. Oswald, and J. J. Coy, Effect of extended tooth contact on the modeling of spur gear transmissions, 29th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Monterey, CA,U.S.A, 1993.
[21] H. Ma, X. Pang, R. Feng, R. Song, B. Wen, Fault features analysis of cracked gear considering the effects of the extended tooth contact, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 48, pp. 105-120, 2015.
Regular Session Papers