In this paper we will discuss some practical aspects of health management for a rechargeable Li-ion battery system for aerospace applications. Industry working groups have developed guidance for the flight certification of this type of battery system, and we will show how this guidance is used in the design. We will also discuss safety features embedded in the battery system related to industry guidance; including cell energy balancing, internal temperature monitoring and emergency fuses. The keys to battery prognostics and health management (PHM) are analytic State of Charge (SoC) and State of Health (SoH) algorithms implemented in these battery systems. We show how these are developed and how we have tested them before deployment. These battery systems also collect data that is made available to the aircraft processing systems, e.g., Aircraft Health Management System, On-board Maintenance System, etc.. This allows for near real-time confirmation of proper operation of these battery systems as well as adherence to MSG-3 maintenance standards. We close with a brief discussion of the practical limitations in our implementation and a discussion of our ongoing and future development in this area.
How to Cite
Chang, V.W., Waggoner, S.B. & Gallman, J.W. (2010). System Integration of a Safe, High Power, Lithium Ion Main Battery into a Civil Aviation Aircraft. SAE Int. J. Aerospace. 3(1). 149-158. doi:10.4271/2010-01-1770
Daigle, M., Saxena A, & Goebel, K (2012), An Efficient Deterministic Approach to Model-based Prediction Uncertainty Estimation, Annual conference of the PHM Society 2012, Minneapolis, MN.
Di Domenico, D., Stefanopoulou, A., & Fiengo, G. (2010). Lithium-ion battery state of charge and critical surface charge estimation using an electrochemical model-based extended Kalman filter. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 132(6), 061302.
Economist. (2008), In search of the perfect battery. The Economist. 386 (8570) 22– 24Mar 6th. http://www. economist.com/node/10789409Electropaedia. The Encylopaedia of Battery and Energy Technologies. Woodbank Communications, http://www.electropaedia.com .
FAA (2010). Part 25 policy statement on rechargeable lithium batteries and rechargeable lithium-battery systems permanently installed on aircraft. FAA Memorandum, ANM-113-10-004.
FAA (2001) Airworthiness Directive 2011-21-51, Affecting Cessna Aircraft Company Model 525C airplanes. October 2011.
George, F. (2010), Analysis: Citation CJ4. Aviation Week Business & Commercial Aviation.
He, W., Williard, N., Osterman, M., & Pecht, M. (2011). Remaining useful performance analysis of batteries. In Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), 2011 IEEE Conference on (pp. 1-6).
Hensley, R., Newman, J., & Rogers, M. (2012), Battery technology charges ahead. McKinsey Quarterly 07.. https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Battery_technology_charges_ahead_2997.
Hu, C., Youn, B. D., Kim, T., & Chung, J. (2011). Online Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery State-of-Charge and Capacity with a Multiscale Filtering Technique. Transition. 1, 1.
Kim, J., Lee, S., & Cho, B. (2009). The state of charge estimation employing empirical parameters measurements for various temperatures. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference 2009. IPEMC'09. IEEE 6th International. 939-944.
Klein, M. (2011), Viewing the Battery Management System Through Many Lenses. Battery Management Systems Workshop, Annual Conference of the PHM Society. September, Montreal, Canada.
Le, D. & Xidong Tang, X. (2011) Data-driven methods for State of Health estimation in Li-Ion batteries, Battery Management Systems Workshop, Annual Conference of the PHM Society, September, Montreal, Canada..
Lin, X., Perez, H.E., Siegel, J.B., Stefanopoulou, A.G., Yonghua Li, Anderson, R.D., Yi Ding & Castanier, M. P. (2013). Online parameterization of lumped thermal dynamics in cylindrical lithium ion batteries for core temperature estimation and health monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 21(5), 1745-1755. DOI: 10.1109/ TCST.2012.2217143
Malinowski, K. D. (2011). State of Charge Estimation for Advanced Batteries: Reduced Order Electro-chemical Modeling with Error Compensation Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University. https://etd. auburn.edu/handle/10415/2858
NTSB (2014), Safety recommendation to the FAA http://www.ntsb.gov/doclib/recletters/2014/A-14-032-036.pdf, May 2014.
PHM Society (2011), “Battery Management Systems Workshop,” Annual Conference of the PHM Society, Montreal, Canada, Sept 2011 https://www.phmsociety.org/documents/BMS-Work shop-2011-Notes
Salman, M., Tang, X., & Mao, X. (2011). Li-ion Battery State Estimation and Prognosis. Battery Management Systems Workshop, Annual Conference of the PHM Society. September 26. Montreal, Canada.
Terejanu, G. A. (2011). Unscented Kalman filter tutorial. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY14260.
Williard, N., He, W., Osterman, M., & Pecht, M. (2011). Improved SOH Estimation through Coulomb Counting Battery Management Systems Workshop, Annual Conference of the PHM Society. September 26. Montreal, Canada.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.