In this work, we attempt to address two practical limitations when using Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) as classifiers for fault detection using multi-sensor time series data: Firstly, there is a need to understand the classification decisions of RNNs. It is difficult for engineers to diagnose the faults when multiple sensors are being monitored at once. The faults detected by RNNs can be better understood if the sensors carrying the faulty signature are known. To achieve this, we propose a sensor relevance scoring (SRS) approach that scores each sensor based on its contribution to the classification decision by leveraging the hidden layer activations of RNNs. Secondly, lack of labeled training data due to infrequent faults (or otherwise) makes it difficult to train RNNs in a supervised manner. We pre-train an RNN on large unlabeled data via an autoencoder in an unsupervised manner, and then finetune the RNN for the fault detection task using small amount of labeled training data. Through experiments on a public gasoil heating loop dataset and a proprietary pump dataset, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed solutions, and show that i) SRS can help point to the sensors relevant for a fault, ii) large unlabeled data can be used to pre-train an RNNbased fault detector in an unsupervised manner in sparselylabeled scenarios, and iii) a purely unsupervised approach for fault detection (e.g. based on RNN-autoencoders) may not suffice when the number of sensors being monitored is large while the signature for fault is present in only a small subset of sensors.
How to Cite
Semi-supervised fault detection, Multi-sensor fault detection, Time Series analysis, Sensor Analytics, Data-driven methods for fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.