Unexpected anomalies pose significant risks to the health and security of intelligent manufacturing systems. This paper proposes a generative adversarial network (GAN)-based anomaly detection framework specifically for monitoring robotic manipulator operation using a side-channel energy auditing mechanism. To tackle the limitation arising from the lack of labeled data, the GAN model is trained by a semi-supervised learning approach that identifies anomalies during online operations as outliers. The overfitting is purposely utilized during the model training to enlarge the difference between normal energy consumption patterns used for training and anomalous profiles in real-time testing. In addition, the GAN model is modified to use multiple discriminators to analyze the individual energy profile associated with each joint or motor. The anomaly is detected by evaluating the mean and standard deviation values of anomaly scores' distribution, and both values are continuously updated by Welford's algorithm in real time to take into account the effect of environmental variations during operations. The detection performance on our custom dataset demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed pipeline. Specifically, for physical attacks, the framework can achieve an accuracy of approximately 0.93 for instant-wise detection and 0.84 for event-wise detection.
How to Cite
Robotic manipulator, Energy auditing, Generative adversarial network, Anomaly detection, Cyber-Physical attack
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