Sensitivity enhanced method for fault detection and prediction of elevator doors using a margin maximized hyperspace



Published Oct 26, 2023
Minjae Kim Seho Son Kiyong Oh


 This paper proposes novel fault classification and prediction method by addressing a margin maximized hyperspace (MMH) to solve the problems absent of any label at highly imbalanced dataset, which is a frequent but challenging problem in real-world industries. The proposed method features three characteristics. First, knowledge-based feature manipulation is executed using reference and feedback physical properties and the manipulated features are used for training the proposed neural network because the features contain rich information for classifying and predicting faults of the system of interest. Second, VAE transforms high-dimensional input features to a low-dimensional feature space. This nonlinear space transformation reduces the complexity of the classification securing high accuracy and robustness of fault classification in the MMH. Third, the acquired MMH through VAE with Bayesian optimization statistically allocates two extremes of major (normal) and minor (faulty) clusters at origin and unity at the feature space, indicating that sensitivity of fault prediction is maximized. The method would be highly effective in that the model only focuses on separating major and minor clusters deciding each health condition but ignores minor differences within the clusters which confuse users. The effect of the method is demonstrated with field measurements of an elevator door stroke dataset comprising normal, degradation, and faulty states in open and close strokes. The systematic analysis shows that these characteristics contribute to improve accuracy and robustness for fault classification. Specifically, knowledge-based feature manipulation improves the accuracy, and VAE enhances sensitivity on separating each cluster and locational constancy. Moreover, the MMH is effective to predict potential fault without any label for a highly imbalanced dataset. The proposed method provides remaining useful lifetime (RUL) using distances from normal and faulty clusters at the MMH, which enables to quantitatively provide RUL of the system without any definition of RUL. Considering that many systems deployed on fields lack information for fault life or residual useful life, the proposed method would be practical and effective for real world applications.

How to Cite

Kim, M., Son, S., & Oh, K. (2023). Sensitivity enhanced method for fault detection and prediction of elevator doors using a margin maximized hyperspace. Annual Conference of the PHM Society, 15(1).
Abstract 110 | Slides (PDF) Downloads 59 Paper (PDF) Downloads 117



Variational autoencoder, Hyperplane optimization, Elevator diagnosis, Margin Maximized Hyperspace, Anomaly detection

D. P. Kingma, & M. Welling (2013). Auto-encoding variational bayes, arXiv, vol. 1312, no. 6114. doi: 10.48550/arXiv.1312.6114

S. Son, & K-Y. Oh (2022). Integrated framework for estimating remaining useful lifetime through a deep neural network. Applied Soft Computing, vol. 122, doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2022.108879
Technical Research Papers