An experimental methodology is proposed in this paper for mechanism verification of physics-based prognosis of mechanical damage, such as fatigue. The proposed experimental methodology includes multi-resolution in-situ mechanical testing, advanced imaging analysis, and mechanism analysis based on digital measurements. A case study is presented for fatigue crack growth mechanism investigation. In-situ fatigue testing at lower resolutions, i.e., optical microscopy, and digital image correlation is used to analyze the plastic deformation behavior and strain distribution near crack tips. In-situ fatigue testing under higher resolutions, i.e., scanning electron microscopy, and automatic image tracking is used to obtain detailed crack tip deformation and crack growth kinetics at the nanometer scales. Following this, the proposed experimental methodology is applied to two different metallic materials, aluminum alloys and steels. Very different experimental observations are observed and the underlying mechanisms are discussed in detail. The impact on the prognosis algorithm development is also discussed. Finally, the potential application of the proposed experimental methodology to other materials systems and to other types of mechanical damage is discussed.
How to Cite
PHM, fatigue, Physics based prognostics, multi-scale
Campbell, G., & Lahey, R. (1984). A survey of serious aircraft accidents involving fatigue fracture. International Journal of Fatigue, 6(1), 25–30. DOI: 10.1016/0142-1123(84)90005-7
Farrar, C. R., & Lieven, N. a J. (2007). Damage prognosis: the future of structural health monitoring. Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 365(1851), 623–32. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2006.1927
Fleck, N., & Shin, C. (1985). Fatigue crack growth under compressive loading. Engineering fracture mechanics, 21(1), 173–185. DOI: 0013-7944/85
Forsyth, P. J. E. (1962). A two stage process of fatigue crack growth. Crack Propagation: Proceedings of Cranfield Symposium. Cranfield (76–94), England: College of Aeronautics.
Laird, C. (1967). The influence of metallurgical structure on the mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue Crack Propagation, ASTM STP, 415, 131–180.
Macha, D. E., Corbly, D. M., & Jones, J. W. (1979). On the variation of fatigue-crack-opening load with measurement location. Experimental Mechanics, 19(6), 207–213. DOI: 10.1007/BF02324983
McClung, R. C., & Sehitoglu, H. (1989). On the finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure—1. Basic modeling issues. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 33(2), 237–252. DOI:10.1016/0013-7944(89)90027-1
Paris, P. C., Gomez, M. P., & Anderson, W. E. (1961). A Rational Analytic Theory of Fatigue. Trend in Engineering, 13(1), 9–14.
Rice, J. (1968). A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 35, 379– 386.
Sadananda, K. (1999). Analysis of overload effects and related phenomena. International Journal of Fatigue, 21, 233–246. DOI:10.1016/S0142-1123(99)00094-8
Shih, C. F. (1981). Relationships between the J-integral and the crack opening displacement for stationary and extending cracks. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 29(4), 305–326. DOI:10.1016/0022- 5096(81)90003-X.
Shih, T. T., & Wei, R. P. (1974). A study of crack closure in fatigue. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 6(1), 19–32. DOI:10.1016/0013-7944(74)90044-7.
Singh, D. S., Srivastav, A., Gupta, S., Keller, E., & Ray, A. (2009). Ultrasonic measurement of crack opening load for life-extending control of mechanical structures. 2009 American Control Conference (210–215), June 10-12. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2009.5160021.
Wolf, E. (1970). Fatigue crack closure under cyclic tension. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 2(1), 37–45. DOI: 10.1016/0013-7944(70)90028-7.
Zhang, W., & Liu, Y. (2011). Plastic zone size estimation under cyclic loadings using in situ optical microscopy fatigue testing. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 34(9), 717–727. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2695.2011.01567.x.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.