This paper presents an approach for the correction of data gathered for damage prognosis (DP) in composite structures. The validation setup consists of surface-bonded piezoceramic (PZT) transducers used in a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system with simulated bonding layer damage using Teflon masks. The modal damping around PZT mechanical resonance is used as a metric to assess and compensate for the degradation of the adhesive layer of the transducers. Modal damping is derived from electrical admittance curves using a lumped parameter model to monitor the degradation of the transducer adhesive layer. A Pitch-Catch (PC) configuration is then used to discriminate the effect of bonding degradation on actuation and sensing. It is shown that below the first mechanical resonance frequency of the PZT, degradation leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the transmitted and measured signals. Above resonance, in addition to a decrease in signal amplitude of the transmitted and measured signals, a slight linear phase delay is also observed. A Signal Correction Factor (SCF) is proposed to adjust signals based on adhesive degradation evaluated using the measured modal damping. The benefits of the SCF for prognostics feature generation are demonstrated in the frequency domain for the A0mode.
How to Cite
composite materials, SHM, piezoceramic, data gathering methodology, damage prognosis
ASTM. (2007). Standard test method for measuring the damage resistance of a fibre–reinforced polymer matrix composite to a drop–weight impact event (Tech. Rep. Nos. D7136/D7136M–07). American Society for Testing and Materials.
Byington, C. S., Roemer, M. J., & Gallie, T. (2002). Prognos- tic enhancements to diagnostic systems for improved condition-based maintenance. In Aerospace conference proceedings.
Choi, H. (1990). Damage in graphite/epoxy laminated composites due to low-velocity impact. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Coppe, A., Pais, M. J., Kim, N.-H., & Haftka, R. T. (2010). Identification of equivalent damage growth parameters for general crack geometry. In Annual conference on prognostics and health management.
Dupont. (2012). Teflon PTFE fluoropolymer resin: Properties handbook (Tech. Rep.). Author.
Farrar, C. R., & Lieven, N. A. J. (2007). Damage prognosis: The future of structural health monitoring. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365, 623–632.
Galliot, C., Rousseau, J., & Verchery, G. (2012). Drop weight tensile impact testing of adhesively bonded carbon/epoxy laminate joints. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 35, 68–75.
Giurgiutiu, V., & Bao, J. J. (2004). Embedded-ultrasonics structural radar for in situ structural health monitoring of thin-wall structures. Structural Health Monitoring, 3(2), 121–140.
Iarve, E. V., Gurvich, M. R., Mollenhauer, D. H., Rose, C. A., & Da ́vila, C. G. (2011). Mesh–independent matrix cracking and delamination modeling in laminated composites. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 88, 749–773.
Islam, R. A., & Chan, Y. C. (2004). Effect of drop impact energy on contact resistance of anisotropic conductive adhesive film joints. J. Mater. Res., 19(6), 1662–1668.
Kapoor, H., Boller, C., Giljohann, S., & Braun, C. (2010). Strategies for structural health monitoring implementation potential assessment in aircraft operational life extension considerations. In Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on NDT in aerospace.
Kessler, S. S., & Pramila, R. (2007). Pattern recognition for damage characterization in composite materials. In Proceedings of the aiaa sdm conference.
Kim, J., Grisso, B. L., Kim, J. K., Ha, D. S., & Inman, D. J.
(2008). Electrical modeling of piezoelectric ceramics
for analysis and evaluation of sensory systems. In IEEE
sensors applications symposium.
Lanzara, G., Yoon, Y., Kim, Y., & Chang, F.-K. (2009). Influence of interface degradation on the performance of piezoelectric actuators. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 20(14), 1699–1710.
Lotters, J. C., Olthuis, W., Veltink, P. H., & Bergveld, P. (1997). The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications. J. Micromech. Microeng., 7, 145–147.
Mickens, T., Schulz, M., Sundaresan, M., & Ghoshal, A. (2003). Structural health monitoring of an aircraft joint. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 17(2), 285–303.
Mueller, I., Larrosa, C., Roy, S., Mittal, A., Kuldeep, L., & Chang, F.-K. (2009). An integrated health management and prognostic technology for composite airframe structures. In Annual conference on prognostics and health management.
Mulligan, K. R., Masson, P., Le ́tourneau, S., & Quaegebeur, N. (2011). An approach to compensate for the degradation of the monitoring system in damage detection. In Proceedings of the Canadian Institute for NDE.
Mulligan, K. R., Quaegebeur, N., Ostiguy, P.-C., Masson, P., & Le ́tourneau, S. (2012). Comparison of metrics to monitor and compensate for piezoceramic degradation in structural health monitoring. Structural Health Monitoring.
Nader, G., Silva, E. C. N., & Adamowski, J. C. (2004). Effective damping value of piezoelectric transducer experimental techniques and numerical analysis. In Abcm symposium series in mechatronics.
Nguyen, M. Q., Jacombs, S. S., Thomson, R. S., Hachenberg, D., & Scott, M. L. (2005). Simulation of impact on sandwich structures. Composite Structures, 67, 217– 227.
Overly, T. G., Park, K., & Farinholt, M. (2009). Piezoelectric active-sensor diagnostics and validation using instantaneous baseline data. IEEE Sensors Journal, 9(11), 1414–11421.
Park, G., Farrar, C. R., Lanza di Scalea, F., & Coccia, S. (2006). Performance assessment and validation of piezoelectric active-sensors in structural health monitoring. Smart Materials and Structures, 15(6), 1673– 1683.
Quaegebeur, N., Masson, P., Langlois-Demers, D., & Micheau, P. (2010). Dispersion–based imaging for structural health monitoring using sparse and compact arrays. Smart Materials and Structures, 20(1), 1–12.
Quaegebeur, N., Masson, P., Micheau, P., & Mrad, N. (2012). Broadband generation of ultrasonic guided waves using sub-band decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control.
Skaja, A., Fernando, D., & Croll, S. (2006). Mechanical property changes and degradation during accelerated weathering of polyester-urethane coatings. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 3(1), 41–51.
Sugaya, T., Obuchi, T., & Chiaki, S. (2011). Influences of loading rates on stress-strain relations of cured bulks of brittle and ductile adhesives. Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 5(12), 921–928.
The Prognostic and Health Management Society advocates open-access to scientific data and uses a Creative Commons license for publishing and distributing any papers. A Creative Commons license does not relinquish the author’s copyright; rather it allows them to share some of their rights with any member of the public under certain conditions whilst enjoying full legal protection. By submitting an article to the International Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, the authors agree to be bound by the associated terms and conditions including the following:
As the author, you retain the copyright to your Work. By submitting your Work, you are granting anybody the right to copy, distribute and transmit your Work and to adapt your Work with proper attribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States license. You assign rights to the Prognostics and Health Management Society to publish and disseminate your Work through electronic and print media if it is accepted for publication. A license note citing the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License as shown below needs to be placed in the footnote on the first page of the article.
First Author et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.