Various faults in high-fidelity turbomachinery such as steam turbines and centrifugal compressors usually result in unplanned outage thus lowering the reliability and productivity while largely increasing the maintenance costs. Condition monitoring has been increasingly applied to provide early alerting on component faults by using the vibration signals. However, each type of fault in different types of rotating machines usually require an individual model to isolate the damage for accurate condition monitoring, which require costly computation efforts and resources due to the data uncertainties and modeling complexity. This paper presents a generalized deep learning methodology for accurately automatic diagnostics of various faults in general rotating machines by utilizing the shaft orbits generated from vibration signals, considering the high non-linearity and uncertainty of the sensed vibration signals. The sensor anomalies and environmental noise in the vibration signals are first addressed through waveform compensation and Bayesian wavelet noise reduction filtering. Shaft orbit images are generated from the cleansed vibration data collected from different turbomachinery with various fault modes. A multi-layer convolutional neural network model is then developed to classify and identify the shaft orbit images of each fault. Finally, the fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is realized through the automated identification process. The proposed approach retains the fault information in the axis trajectory to the greatest extent, and can adeptly extract and accurately identify features of various faults. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by using the sensed vibration signals collected from real-world centrifugal compressors and steam turbines with different fault modes.
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Bayesian wavelet denoising, convolutional neural network, fault identification, shaft orbits, turbomachinery
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